New ALS gene represents another small step

It wouldn’t be the Symposium without a new gene discovery.

Although technology has allowed incredible advances in the gene-hunting field, this is countered by the fact that as more and more familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) genes are found, it makes the search for the remaining unknown genes harder  This is in part due to the fact that the undiscovered genes are likely to be increasingly rare (so even more rigorous detective work is needed) but the challenge is compounded by the fact that there are fewer and fewer samples with an unknown cause available each time a new gene is found.

The solution to these problems lies with greater collaboration, sharing knowledge, expertise and of course the vital samples needed for the research to happen.Dr Brad Smith

Dr Brad Smith (King’s College London) unveiled the latest collaborative effort, involving over 50 researchers across 9 countries. The researchers took an approach called Exome Sequencing, which analyses the 1% of the genetic code where most mutations are likely to be found, to look for genes in several hundred FALS cases where the genetic cause was still unknown. They then compared their findings with those from 60,000 individuals in publicly available databases.Read More »

New inherited MND-causing gene identified – TUBA4A

An international team of researchers, led by MND Association-funded researchers based at King’s College London, have identified mistakes in the TUBA4A gene as a new cause of the rare inherited form of MND.

This new MND-causing gene causes the cell’s structure, or skeleton, to break down – resulting in the cell being unable to transport molecules from one end of the cell to the other.

TUBA4A falls off the track

The TUBA4A gene is responsible for the Tubulin, alpha 4A protein and the researchers have found that the genetic mistake in the TUBA4A gene causes the microtubule network to breakdown in MND.

The microtubule network is a bit like a railway system. Normally, the healthy TUBA4A protein acts like a train, allowing the cell to transport molecules along this railway track to where they’re needed. As well as transporting molecules around the cell, the microtubule also acts as a skeleton within it (known as the ‘cytoskeleton’).Read More »

Matrin 3 gene identified

Following on from our ’year of hope’ appeal last month an international team of researchers, including two funded by the MND Association, have identified mutations in the Matrin 3 (MATR3) gene as a cause of the rare inherited form of MND.

Medical Research Council (MRC)/ MND Association Lady Edith Wolfson Clinical Research Fellow Dr Pietro Fratta was involved in the research, which was published on 30 March 2014 in the prestigious journal Nature Neuroscience.

Inherited MND is a rare form of MND (5-10% of total MND cases) and the MATR3 gene is the latest to be identified. This rare form of MND is characterised by a family history of MND.

New gene, new gene

When a new gene is first identified this creates a great deal of ‘buzz’ amongst the MND research community, often generating more questions than answers:

  • How common is this inherited MND gene?
  • How does this gene cause MND?

This is the starting point for MATR3. Unfortunately, we just don’t know the answers to these questions at the moment. Hopefully MND researchers will now use the discovery of MATR3 to find the answers to these questions and further our understanding of this gene.

Read More »