Steps to understanding MND

Love them or loath them, the band Steps’ first single ‘5,6,7,8’ was a techno line dance song released in 1998 from their debut album ‘step one’, with the B side ‘words of wisdom’.

Using this forced and purely tenuous link and an equally awkward segue, I would like to share with you the news that the journal Neurology this week published further words of wisdom from Professor Adriano Chio, Professor Ammar Al-Chalabi and colleagues, that revisits the multistep hypothesis of MND. Their previous work showed that when no genetic cause is considered, developing MND is a six-step process. In their most recent work, the team investigated how many of the steps does a genetic mutation account for in this multistep process, with a focus on the most common MND causative genes SOD1, TARDBP, and C9ORF72.Read More »

Fathoming MND

This article was written by our Senior Clinical Fellow Prof Martin Turner, a Consultant Neurologist at John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford.

“Will it affect my children?” This is one of the questions most commonly asked by people diagnosed with MND. The 20th century answer was a simple “no”, or at least “very unlikely”. With recent scientific advances, however, doctors must give a more complicated answer. At the same time, these advances are cause of excitement about the greater understanding of MND and new hope for treatments for all cases.Read More »

More information for families affected by inherited MND available online

In April this year MND clinician-researchers Professors Martin Turner and Kevin Talbot at the University of Oxford organised an information day about the rare, inherited form of MND called ‘Families for the Treatment of Hereditary MND’ (FATHoM). The day was filmed and podcasts of the talks have recently become available. This article gives an overview of each talk and a link to the video.Read More »

ANXA11 – another gene closer to understanding ALS

A new research paper has been published today in the Science Translational Medicine journal, describing a new gene implicated in developing MND. What is this gene and why is it important for our fight against MND?

Although they are not the sole cause of MND, genes play a big role in someone’s probability of developing the disease. A number of such genes that make a person susceptible to developing MND have already been identified, with most of them causing the rarer, inherited form of the disease.

A new addition to a list of genes that are related to development of ALS, the most common form of MND, has been discovered by researchers from King’s College London. Dr Bradley Smith and colleagues screened genetic data of an unusually high number of people of European origin: 751 with inherited – familial – ALS (fALS) and 180 with non-inherited – sporadic – ALS (sALS). Detailed analysis of this data found that specific mutations in the ANXA11 gene are associated with around 1% of all fALS and 1.7% of all sALS cases.Read More »

New genetic discoveries tell us more about what causes MND – Part 2

Two sets of MND genetic results were published yesterday. One of these results was about the importance of a new gene called NEK1. The second highlighted the role of gene C21orf2 in MND – we wrote an article about this yesterday. Both sets of results were published in the prestigious journal Nature Genetics.

What are the results and what do they tell us?

Researchers found that variations in the NEK1 gene contribute to why people develop the rare, inherited form of MND. Variations in the NEK1 gene were also found to be one of the many factors that tip the balance towards why people with no family history develop MND.

NEK1 has many jobs within motor neurones including helping keeping their shape and keeping the transport system open. Future research will tell us how we can use this new finding to target drugs to stop MND.Read More »

Transforming skin cells into nerve cells to understand MND gene mutations

In previous research Prof Kevin Talbot and colleagues at the University of Oxford began to understand more about how the C9orf72 gene defect causes human motor neurones to die. These studies were carried out using an impressive piece of lab technology, called induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology.

iPSC technology allows skin cells to be reprogrammed into stem cells, which are then directed to develop into motor neurones. Because they originated from people with MND, the newly created motor neurones will also be affected by the disease. Researchers can grow and study these cells in a dish in the laboratory.Read More »

Using fruit flies to understand a genetic cause of MND

Mistakes in a gene known as ALS5, or spatacsin, cause a rare form of inherited MND that develops at a much earlier age than most other forms of the disease. Under supervision from Dr Cahir O’Kane, MND Association funded PhD student Alex Patto has been using fruit flies to understand how mistakes in spatacsin cause MND (our grant reference 861-792).

Prior to this research, which is based at the Department of Genetics at the University of Cambridge, nothing was known about how faulty spatacsin leads to motor neurone degeneration. Three and a half year years on, this research has shed light on this important question.

What did they find?

By conducting tests in the fruit flies, Alex has found that the spatacsin protein has a role in cell recycling (also known as autophagy), a process which keeps cells healthy. When the spatacsin protein is faulty it leads to disrupted cell recycling and abnormal levels of another protein called Rab7, which might contribute to MND development.Read More »

More clues to the inner workings of the C9orf72 gene

Continuing the ‘gene hunting theme’ on from our last blog post on Project MinE, a recently published study has shed more light on the C9orf72 gene mutation.

The C9orf72 gene mutation is the most common cause of the rare inherited form of MND (about 40% of all people with inherited MND have this mutation). Some people with the sporadic form of MND also have this mutation, and it has been linked to the development of a type of dementia called frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

Figuring out the normal function of C9orf72

A study by Jacqueline O’Rourke and colleagues at Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles used mice that lacked the equivalent gene to C9orf72.

When this gene was absent, the mice developed normally and their motor nerve cells were unaffected.

From this evidence they discounted one of theories about the C9orf72 mutation – that a change to the gene stops it working entirely and that this affects the health of motor neurons.Read More »

Looking for MND genes: Project MinE update

Project MinE is an international genetics project that is analysing DNA from people with MND in detail.

For the majority of people with MND, the disease appears ‘sporadically’ for no apparent reason. For a small number of people, approximately 5-10% of those with MND there is an inherited link, in other words the disease runs in their families.

We know a lot about the genes that are damaged in the rare inherited forms of MND. We also know that very subtle genetic factors, together with environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to why the majority of people develop the disease. These subtle genetic factors are very hard to find.

The goal of Project MinE is to find the other genes that cause inherited MND and help us find out more about these subtle genetic risk factors.

mine

Project MinE was born when Dutch entrepreneur Bernard Muller challenged his neurologist to do something with all the DNA samples in his freezer – samples being stored there for future analysis. ‘Why can’t those samples be analysed now?’ was his question. That was two years ago!Read More »

“To test or not to test”, that is the question

A huge ‘atlas’ mapping the locations of motor neurone disease (MND) causing mutations within the genetic code has been collated. This has followed years of genetic analysis and sequencing of the DNA of people with MND, and their family members.

The people who have given their time and DNA have played a hugely important part in helping researchers learn more about MND, particularly the inherited form of the disease. Dr Benatar, who spoke in this session highlighted “there is a desire and interest by people who may have inherited MND to contribute to research into this disease, if not for their benefit then for the benefit to future generations of their family“.

The first session on day two of the Symposium looked at the topic of genetic testing and counselling. All the presentations had a common theme of this topic being a two-way street – after all the help people with MND and their families have given to help with research, now research efforts have been focussing on the ways to better help those who decide to have genetic testing for inherited/familial MND.Read More »